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As a doctoral dissertation submitted in at the University of California, Los Angeles, it benefited from the direction of Amin Banani and the comments of Nikki Keddie. Virendra Deo Pandey codirected the original dissertation while I was in India. I have been helped in extensively rewriting it by the comments of David Bien, Michael H. My debts to private libraries and public institutions are large indeed.

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Ursula Sitapug of the India Office kindly helped with the illustrations. The Shah's secular policies led to weakness, and only in the religious sphere did he take forceful action, giving free reign to the bigotry of clerics such as Shaykhu'l-Islam Muhammad Baqir Majlisi d.

Although [Awrangzib] had, as I have said, numerous Persians in his service, he did not allow them to celebrate the festival of Hosen and Hosein, sons of All. John Briggs, 4 vols. When the Iranians had originally come to the shrine cities in the s, many of them penniless refugees, they had been integrated into the Akhbari ideology of their Arab hosts and benefactors. As a refugee from Iran in Karbala, he would at first have been dependent on the largesse of Akhbari religious dignitaries.

But al-Karaki wished to create a religious institution under his own authority. Shah Sultan Husayn presided over the dissolution of the Safavid Empire. They particularly mourned the death of the third Imam, Husayn d.

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London: Hakluyt Society, Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. This probably reflected tex need of dynamic Twelver communities, such as that of al-Hillah in the Mongol era, for a more flexible law. One could almost speak of "Muslim nationalism," but it has recently been suggested that it might be better to substitute an uncontaminated phrase such as "political identity" for the vaguer "nationalism. Any important figure among the ulama would have to make alliances with the Sayyid landholders and with the chief gangsters who ran protection rackets in the bazaars.

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As time went on, al-Bahrani moved away from a strict Akhbarism to a neo-Akhbari sitzpur that had Usuli latin chatroom. It also ensured that the [45] Mirza Muhammad Tunikabuni. Most names are transliterated as if Persian, but nisbahs deriving from Indian place names are in Urdu. The Mongol conquest of I ran and Iraq two centuries later freed Twelvers in many ways from the restrictions placed upon them by the strongly Sunni Saljuqs.

Only one of the three empires, the Ottoman, survived, partially because the European powers could not agree among themselves how to divide it up. He rejected the legitimacy of holding Friday prayers during the absence of the Imam of collecting kharaj land taxes, and free mobile teen chat associating with rulers.

With the decline of court patronage for scholars and the expropriation of endowments, more were probably forced into sitwpur trades—becoming cotton or silk weavers, smiths, dyers, bleachers, and hat makers—than would normally have been the case. The Ottomans promoted the Hanafi rite of Sunni Islam as their state religion, chhat a highly institutionalized and bureaucratic religious establishment.

This work essays comparisons with contemporary developments in Iraq and Iran and emphasizes the intricate international networks created by ulama immigration, pilgrimage, visitation, and travel for study. Press,pp.

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It asks about the role of religion in expressing indigenous Asian cultural values at a time of widening European influence, and about chaat impact of social and economic change on religious institutions and values. Akhbaris were almost certainly the great majority. Guenther Roth and Claus Wittich, 2 vols. Metcalf has investigated the great landholders, Barnett has written on government administrators, and Bayly has delineated the role of Hindu merchants and Muslim middle strata.

Many settled in Iran's small towns and large villages, where local tribal leaders came into prominence with the decline of central government. From local Sunni elites came back into power. In practice, of course, Akhbaris also made interpretations.

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But the scholars adhering to the rationalist Usuli school of jurisprudence gradually assumed the right to act for the Imam as proxies in these and other areas. Oxford Univ. At this point, the Akhbaris had the important gangster, or luticontacts, and could employ these to intimidate Usuli rivals. Yet during the time of the agents a saying attributed to the hidden Twelfth Imam began to circulate, declaring that men who related oral reports from the Imams had the deputyship niyabah of free oroville chat rooms Imams.

Nadir's military policies cat back to those of Timur "Tamerlane" or the early Safavids, in that he put together a coalition of tribal Afghan and Qizilbash armies instead of depending on a bureaucratically ordered standing army.

The clergy, a status group, came from specific social classes. Changes in ulama views on the principles of jurisprudence and on their own place in society are analyzed as ideology. Naff and R. But Sitappur still preferred a more conservative approach to juridical decision-making, excluding the rationalist techniques of the Usulis.


Partisans of the Imams endured the hostile rule of the Umayy until the middle of the eighth century A. It illuminates the processes whereby a small, powerless sect can become a "church," wex formal religious establishment. Iran also char to feel mililary pressure from the Russia of Peter the Great, and from the Ottomans. Eleventh-century Imamis largely held that only the Imam could collect and distribute religious taxes, lead Friday congregational prayers, and head up holy war jihad campaigns, and that in his absence such functions of the Islamic state had lapsed.

Changes in provincial administration and neglect of the military made Iran vulnerable to Baluchi tribal raids and incursions by the tribal Ghilzay Afghans, who seized Qandahar in The Raja and Maharajkumar cat Mahmudabad munificently gave me access to their manuscripts. The director of the Nasiriyyah Library, Mawlana Tahir Jarvali, and his staff showed me endless kindness and helpfulness.

Ssex tribal forces. Regional contests for power divided for a decade and a half the area that had been Safavid Iran, with the Shiraz-based Zands emerging victorious west of Khurasan.

This book concentrates on changes in religious practices, structures and [15] Gregory Charles Kozlowski found good evidence in endowment documents that many practices discouraged by the Naqshbandi revivalists continued to be ln in wills; see his Muslim Endowments and Society in British India Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press,and Nadir Shah Lahore al-Irfan, repr.

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British intervention in religious spokane message sex relations also proved crucial for communal identity and violence throughout the nineteenth century and into the twentieth. The latter grant helped fund intensive language training at the University of California Berkeley Urdu Program in Lahore. Roy Mottahedeh has pointed out that the "learned," or ulama, included not only cht religious officials who taught or gave legal judgments, but also part-time scholars and even hobbyists.

As will be discussed later, the Mughal Empire declined at the center and regional successor states emerged.